LoRaWAN

LoRa
LoRa Module with antenna and SPI wires attached.jpg
A LoRa module
Developed bySemtech
Connector typeSPI/I2C
Compatible hardwareSX1278
Physical range10km+

LoRa (Long Range) is a spread spectrum modulation technique derived from chirp spread spectrum (CSS) technology and is the first low-cost implementation of chirp spread spectrum for commercial usage.[1] This patented digital wireless data communication technology developed  by Cycleo of Grenoble, France, and acquired by Semtech in 2012, a founding member of the LoRa Alliance™.[2]

Semtech’s LoRa devices and wireless radio frequency technology (LoRa Technology) is a long range, low power wireless chipset that has become the de facto technology for Internet of Things (IoT)  networks worldwide.[1] LoRa Technology enables a variety of smart IoT applications aimed at  solving challenges like energy management, natural resource reduction, pollution control, infrastructure efficiency, disaster prevention, and more. LoRa is a long-range wireless communication protocol that competes against other low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) wireless such as narrowband IoT (NB IoT) or LTE Cat M1.

Features[edit]

LoRa uses license-free sub-gigahertz radio frequency bands like 169 MHz, 433 MHz, 868 MHz (Europe) and 915 MHz (North America). LoRa enables long-range transmissions (more than 10 km in rural areas) with low power consumption.[3] The technology is presented in two parts: LoRa, the physical layer and LoRaWAN (Long Range Wide Area Network), the upper layers.

All devices are designed to comply with world-wide regulatory specifications such as FCC, ETSI, and ARIB and comply with widely accepted standards such as IEEE 802.15.4g and WMBus.https://lora-alliance.org/lorawan-certification

In January 2018, new LoRa chipsets were announced, with reduced power consumption, increased transmission power, and reduced size compared to older generation.[2]

LoRa devices have geolocation capabilities used for triangulating positions of devices via timestamps from gateways.[4]

LoRa and LoRaWAN permit long-range connectivity for Internet of Things (IoT) devices in different types of industries.[5]

LoRa Basics™: Basic code building blocks to assist solution developers in the creation of LoRa-based products. The first of these building blocks, LoRa Basics Station (LoRaWAN gateway firmware), was announced and simultaneously released on GitHub in January 2019. Future areas of focus include device firmware, firmware updates over the air (FUOTA) and network performance analytics. [6]

LoRa PHY[edit]

The LoRa physical layer protocol is proprietary; therefore, there is no freely available official documentation, though Semtech has provided an overview of the modulation and other relevant technical specifications.[1] However, several independent researchers have analyzed it and documented their findings.[7][8]

LoRa uses a proprietary spread spectrum modulation that is similar to and a derivative of Chirp Spread Spectrum modulation (CSS). This allows LoRa to trade off data rate for sensitivity with a fixed channel bandwidth by selecting the amount of spread used (a selectable radio parameter from 7 to 12). This spreading factor determines the data rate and dictates the sensitivity of a radio. In addition, LoRa uses Forward Error Correction coding to improve reselience against interference. LoRa's high range is characterized by extremely high wireless link budgets, around 155 dB to 170 dB.[9]

LoRaWAN™[edit]

Since LoRa defines the lower physical layer, the upper networking layers were lacking. LoRaWAN is one of several protocols that were developed to define the upper layers of the network. LoRaWAN is a cloud-based media access control (MAC) layer protocol but acts mainly as a network layer protocol for managing communication between LPWAN gateways and end-node devices as a routing protocol, maintained by the LoRa Alliance. Version 1.0 of the LoRaWAN specification was released in June 2015.[10]

LoRaWAN defines a communication protocol and system architecture for a LoRa-based network, while the LoRa physical layer enables the long-range communication link. LoRaWAN is also responsible for managing the communication frequencies, data rate, and power for all devices.[11] Devices in the network are asynchronous and transmit when they have data available to send. Data transmitted by an end-node device may be received by multiple gateways, which forward the data packets to a centralized network server.[12] The network server filters duplicate packets, performs security checks, and manages the network.[13] Data is then forwarded to application servers.[14] The technology shows high reliability for the moderate load, however, it has some performance issues related to sending acknowledgements.[15]

LoRa Alliance[edit]

The LoRa Alliance is an association created in 2015 to support LoRaWAN (long range wide-area network) protocol as well as ensure interoperability of all LoRaWAN products and technologies. This open, nonprofit association has over 500 members.[16] Some members of the LoRa Alliance are IBM, MicroChip, Orange, Cisco, KPN, Swisscom, Semtech, Bouygues Telecom, Singtel and Proximus.[17] In 2018, the LoRa Alliance had over 100 LoRaWAN network operators in over 100 countries.[18]

Deployments of LoRa Technology[edit]

Semtech’s LoRa Technology has been deployed in uses cases for smart cities, smart homes and buildings, smart agriculture, smart metering, smart supply chain and logistics, and more. [19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "LoRa Modulation Basics" (PDF).
  2. ^ a b "Powering IoT's Next Generation". electronics360.globalspec.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  3. ^ Ramon Sanchez-Iborra; Jesus Sanchez-Gomez; Juan Ballesta-Viñas; Maria-Dolores Cano; Antonio F. Skarmeta (2018). "Performance Evaluation of LoRa Considering Scenario Conditions". Sensors.
  4. ^ Fargas, Bernat Carbones; Petersen, Martin Nordal. "GPS-free Geolocation using LoRa in Low-Power WANs" (PDF). DTU Library.
  5. ^ Ram, Prashant (2018-08-07). "LPWAN, LoRa, LoRaWAN and the Internet of Things". Coinmonks. Retrieved 2019-02-09.
  6. ^ https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/news/semtech-launches-free-open-source-toolset-iot-development-LoRaWAN/
  7. ^ Matthew Knight; Balint Seeber (2016). "Decoding LoRa: Realizing a Modern LPWAN with SDR".
  8. ^ Jesus Sanchez-Gomez; Ramon Sanchez-Iborra (2017). "Experimental comparison of LoRa and FSK as IoT-communication-enabling modulations". IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom'17): 1–6. doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2017.8254530. ISBN 978-1-5090-5019-2.
  9. ^ Mohan, Vivek. "10 Things About LoRaWAN & NB-IoT". blog.semtech.com. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
  10. ^ Version 1.0 of the LoRaWAN specification released.
  11. ^ "LoRaWAN For Developers". www.lora-alliance.org. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  12. ^ "A Comprehensive Look At LPWAN For IoT Engineers & Decision Makers". www.link-labs.com. Retrieved 2017-06-22.
  13. ^ Gupta, Rohit (18 January 2019). "The Business Case for Densifying LoRaWAN Deployments". IoT For All. Archived from the original (html) on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019. Another feature of LoRaWAN networks is that messages in uplink can be received by any gateway (Rx macro-diversity). It’s the function of a network server to remove duplicates in uplink and select the best gateway for downlink transmission based on the uplink RSSI estimates.
  14. ^ LoRa Alliance (2015). "LoRaWAN: What is it?" (PDF).
  15. ^ Bankov, D.; Khorov, E.; Lyakhov, A. (November 2016). "On the Limits of LoRaWAN Channel Access". 2016 International Conference on Engineering and Telecommunication (EnT): 10–14. doi:10.1109/ent.2016.011. ISBN 978-1-5090-4553-2.
  16. ^ "Semtech's LoRa Alliance grows to 500 members". Pacific Coast Business Times. 2017-06-29. Retrieved 2019-02-09.
  17. ^ "Member Directory | LoRa Alliance™". lora-alliance.org. Retrieved 2019-02-09.
  18. ^ "LoRa Alliance passes 100 LoRaWAN network operator milestone". Electronic Products & Technology. 2019-01-25. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  19. ^ https://enterpriseiotinsights.com/20190130/channels/news/de-facto-iot-tech-says-semtech
  20. ^ "IoT Aims to Track Free-Ranging Reindeer in Finland - 2018-01-19 - Page 1 - RFID Journal". www.rfidjournal.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  21. ^ "IoT boost for Glasgow". Smart Cities World. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  22. ^ "Kerlink and YEAP! to Collaborate on the Rollout of First LoRaWAN IoT Network in Argentina". IoT Business News. 2017-09-05. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  23. ^ "American Tower targets two million 2019 Brazilian LoRaWAN connections". enterpriseiotinsights.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  24. ^ "Actillity and Levikom launch world's 1st "open value chain" LoRaWAN IoT network". Actility. 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  25. ^ "Holtek Announces Intelligent Fire Alarm MCU SIP Module Integrated with Semtech's LoRa® Technology - Product News - Holtek". www.holtek.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  26. ^ Mu-Hyun, Cho. "SK Telecom launches LoRa-based fire detection solution". ZDNet. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  27. ^ "Semtech partners with Chinese bike-sharing company". Pacific Coast Business Times. 2017-10-19. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  28. ^ "Semtech LoRa-based IoT Solution Saves 22% in Water Management". www.businesswire.com. 2018-09-12. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  29. ^ "Semtech's LoRa Technology and Senet's LoRaWAN-based Network Leveraged in Flood Sensors to Monitor Water Levels". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  30. ^ "Semtech and X-TELIA Implement LoRa Solution for Smart Bus Schedule Signs". www.semtech.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  31. ^ "Semtech-enabled HEX smart exit signs allow safe egress in a fire". FMLink. 2018-09-03. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  32. ^ "Semtech's LoRa Technology Is Leveraged by Kiwi Technology to Develop Smart Cities in Thailand". www.semtech.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  33. ^ "Semtech's LoRa Technology Creates Smarter Streets in India". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  34. ^ "Practical Parking: PNI Sensor Corporation and Senet Roll Out LPWAN Solution". www.iotevolutionworld.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  35. ^ "Chipsafer Connects Cattle Ranching to the Cloud with LoRa Technology". IoT Business News. 2017-08-31. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  36. ^ "Beartooth and Semtech's LoRa Technology Provides Reliable Communication in Cellular Outages". IoT Business News. 2017-09-14. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  37. ^ "First black rhinos protected by sensor-implants in horns". IoT Business News. 2017-09-28. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  38. ^ "Animal Conservation with LoraWAN - turtles, fish and more". Institute IRNAS. 2018-04-05. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  39. ^ "IoT is revolutionizing natural disaster prediction - IoT Agenda". internetofthingsagenda.techtarget.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  40. ^ Chin, Spencer (2018-12-05). "LoRA Technology Comes to Aid of Australian Cotton Farmers". Electronic Component News. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  41. ^ "SenRa and NAS Roll Out Remote Metering for Water & Electricity in India". www.iotevolutionworld.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  42. ^ Staff, Circuit Cellar (2019-02-05). "Utility Metering Solution Taps Semtech's LoRa Technology". Circuit Cellar. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  43. ^ "Semtech Selected for Smart Irrigation System | San Fernando Valley Business Journal". sfvbj.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  44. ^ "LoRa Solution Offers Wireless View Into Soil Health - 2018-11-09 - Page 1 - RFID Journal". www.rfidjournal.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  45. ^ "Extending LoRaWAN to Receive Messages from Space". electronics360.globalspec.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  46. ^ "Spain pilots smart water technology". Smart Cities World. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  47. ^ "Dutch firm launches LoRa smart agriculture solution on Senet network". enterpriseiotinsights.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  48. ^ "Semtech Technology Underlies Comcast MachineQ IoT Service in 10 Cities - Telecompetitor". www.telecompetitor.com. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
  49. ^ "Calgary, Alberta unveils 4 new smart city initiatives". Smart Cities Dive. Retrieved 2019-02-15.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]